History, Geography, Homes, and State Resources of Wyoming
Moving to Wyoming, you'll discover it's both rich in scenery and in natural resources. The first national park in the country , Yellowstone, is here, however many of the
new energy sources in the nation are being developed and mined in the state as well.. Wyoming is home to the nation's biggest elk herd and also the country's largest
coal reserve. The state takes pride in its culture, equality and history, with a future balanced as carefully as those rodeo stars competing at the Wyoming county
So, if you’re coming to the state for its historical heritage, its natural surroundings, or its advanced energy sector, there's plenty of cities and towns to select
from when deciding to call Montana home. There’s laid-back Laramie, a university town, Cheyenne, the state capital, a bustling city with rich cultural heritage. Other
cities to ponder are Gillette and Rock Springs, two rapidly growing energy hubs as well as Jackson, which is near the national parks.
The U.S. acquired the land comprising Wyoming from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. John Colter, a fur-trapper, is the first white man known to have
entered the region. In 1807 he explored the Yellowstone area and brought back news of its geysers and hot springs.
Robert Stuart pioneered the Oregon Trail across Wyoming in 1812–1813 and, in 1834, Fort Laramie, the first permanent trading post in Wyoming, was built. Western Wyoming
was obtained by the U.S. in the 1846 Oregon Treaty with Great Britain and as a result of the treaty ending the Mexican War in 1848.
When the Wyoming Territory was organized in 1869, Wyoming women became the first in the nation to obtain the right to vote. In 1925 Mrs. Nellie Tayloe Ross became the
first woman governor in the United States.
Wyoming's climate is generally semi-arid and continental (Köppen climate classification BSk), and is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with
greater temperature extremes. Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 and 95 °F
(29 and 35 °C) in most of the state. With increasing elevation, however, this average drops rapidly with locations above 9,000 feet (2,700 m) averaging around 70 °F (21
°C). Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cool down with even the hottest locations averaging in the 50–60 °F (10–16 °C) range at night. In
most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in the late spring and early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme
cold interspersed between generally mild periods
The 2018 Wyoming Population is estimated at 573,720. The state of Wyoming is located in the central northwestern sector of the USA. While it is the 10th largest in terms
of surface area, it has the lowest recorded population of any state in the Union. It is also the second most sparsely populated. Wyoming's population in 2018 is
estimated at 573,720, up slightly from the 2010 Census. It's currently enjoying a healthy growth rate of 1.13%, which ranks 15th among all 50 states.
Public education is directed by the state superintendent of public instruction, an elected state official. Educational policies are set by the State Board of Education, a
nine-member board appointed by the governor. The constitution prohibits the state from establishing curriculum and textbook selections; these are the prerogatives of
local school boards.
The Rocky Mountain Herbarium at the University of Wyoming
Wyoming has one public four-year institution, the University of Wyoming in Laramie and one private four-year college, Wyoming Catholic College, in Lander, Wyoming. In
addition, there are seven two-year community colleges spread throughout the state.
Before the passing of a new law in 2006, Wyoming had hosted unaccredited institutions, many of them suspected diploma mills. The 2006 law is forcing unaccredited
institutions to make one of three choices: move out of Wyoming, close down, or apply for accreditation. The Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization predicts that in
a few years the problem of diploma mills in Wyoming might be resolved
According to the 2012 United States Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Wyoming's gross state product was $38.4 billion. As of 2014 the population was growing
slightly with the most growth in tourist-oriented areas such as Teton County. Boom conditions in neighboring states such as North Dakota were drawing energy workers
away. About half of Wyoming's counties showed population losses. The state makes active efforts through Wyoming Grown, an internet-based recruitment program, to find
jobs for young people educated in Wyoming who have emigrated but may wish to return.
As of November 2015, the state's unemployment rate was 4.0%. The composition of Wyoming's economy differs significantly from that of other states with most activity in
tourism, agriculture, and energy extraction; and little in anything else.
Flora and Fauna
Wyoming has more than 2,000 species of ferns, conifers, and flowering plants. Prairie grasses dominate the eastern third of the state; desert shrubs, primarily
sagebrush, cover the Great Basin in the west. Rocky Mountain forests consist largely of pine, spruce, and fir. In 2003, only one plant species was endangered, blowout
penstemon. Three species were listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, including wyoming butterfly plant, Ute ladies'-tresses, and desert yellowhead.
The mule deer is the most abundant game mammal; others include the white-tailed deer, pronghorn antelope, elk, and moose. The jackrabbit, antelope, and raccoon are
plentiful. Wild turkey, bobwhite quail, and several grouse species are leading game birds; more than 50 species of non-game birds also inhabit Wyoming all year long.
There are 78 species of fish, of which rainbow trout is the favorite game fish. In 2003, 13 Wyoming animal species were listed as threatened or endangered, including the
black-footed ferret, grizzly bear, whooping crane, razorback sucker, Kendall Warm Springs dace, and Wyoming toad.
A familiar songbird of open country across the western two-thirds of the North American continent, the western meadowlark is a symbol of six states (official state bird
of Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, and
Wyoming's Constitution established three branches of government: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
The Wyoming State Legislature comprises a House of Representatives with 60 members and a Senate with 30 members.
The executive branch is headed by the governor and includes a secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Wyoming does not have a
lieutenant governor. Instead the secretary of state stands first in the line of succession.
Wyoming's sparse population warrants it only a single at-large seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, and hence only three votes in the Electoral College.
Wyoming is an alcoholic beverage control state.
Due to its sparse population, the state of Wyoming lacks any major professional sports teams. Some of the most popular sports teams in the state are the University of
Wyoming Cowboys and Cowgirls teams – particularly football and basketball, which play in the Mountain West Conference. Their stadiums in Laramie are at about 7,200 feet
200 m) above sea level, the highest in NCAA Division I. High school sports are governed by the Wyoming High School Activities Association, which sponsors 12 sports.
Rodeo is popular in Wyoming, and Casper has hosted the College National Finals Rodeo since 2001.
Unlike most other states, Wyoming does not levy an individual or corporate income tax. In addition, Wyoming does not assess any tax on retirement income earned and
received from another state. Wyoming has a state sales tax of 4%. Counties have the option of collecting an additional 1% tax for general revenue and a 1% tax for
specific purposes, if approved by voters. Food for human consumption is not subject to sales tax. There also is a county lodging tax that varies from 2% to 5%. The
state collects a use tax of 5% on items purchased elsewhere and brought into Wyoming. All property tax is based on the assessed value of the property and Wyoming's
Department of Revenue's Ad Valorem Tax Division supports, trains, and guides local government agencies in the uniform assessment, valuation and taxation of locally
assessed property. "Assessed value" means taxable value; "taxable value" means a percent of the fair market value of property in a particular class. Statutes limit
property tax increases. For county revenue, the property tax rate cannot exceed 12 mills (or 1.2%) of assessed value. For cities and towns, the rate is limited to 8
mills (0.8%). With very few exceptions, state law limits the property tax rate for all governmental purposes.
Personal property held for personal use is tax-exempt. Inventory if held for resale, pollution control equipment, cash, accounts receivable, stocks and bonds are also
exempt. Other exemptions include property used for religious, educational, charitable, fraternal, benevolent and government purposes and improvements for handicapped
access. Mine lands, underground mining equipment, and oil and gas extraction equipment are exempt from property tax but companies must pay a gross products tax on
minerals and a severance tax on mineral production.
Wyoming does not collect inheritance taxes. There is limited estate tax related to federal estate tax collection.
In 2008, the Tax Foundation ranked Wyoming as having the single most "business friendly" tax climate of all 50 states. Wyoming state and local governments in fiscal year
2007 collected $2.242 billion in taxes, levies, and royalties from the oil and gas industry. The state's mineral industry, including oil, gas, trona, and coal provided
$1.3 billion in property taxes from 2006 mineral production. Wyoming receives more federal tax dollars per capita in aid than any other state except Alaska. The
federal aid per capita in Wyoming is more than double the United States average.
As of 2016, Wyoming does not require the beneficial owners of LLCs to be disclosed in the filing, which creates an opportunity for a tax haven, according to Clark Stith
of Clark Stith & Associates in Rock Springs, Wyoming, a former Republican candidate for Wyoming secretary of state.
Wyoming's main airport is small and serves a limited number of flights, but it's the best option for air travel in the state. Jackson Hole Airport provides easy access to Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park. Every year, hundreds of thousands of passengers fly on American, Delta, Frontier and United flights to Jackson. Year-round flights are available to Salt Lake City, Utah, and Denver, Colorado. Seasonal flights are added to US destinations such as Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, Minneapolis, Newark, Los Angeles and San Francisco for the winter ski season and summer vacation months.
The small but beautifully designed terminal reflects the aesthetics of the Rocky Mountains. Jackson Hole Airport is one of the most beautiful and convenient airports to travel to. A restaurant is open when flights are scheduled. There is also a gift shop and a kiosk selling travel items, snacks and souvenirs. An ATM is located in the baggage claim area and Wi-Fi internet coverage is available throughout the terminal.